Being in the field of computational science, knowing how fast a certain computer and compiler can turn the crank is of interest to me. Although it has been changing, most people traditionally associate a processor's clockspeed with how fast it will be, but the numbers below indicate how much other factors can influence this all.

The specific benchmark used was a molecular dynamics simulation which involved simulating a calcium aluminosilicate glass consisting of 6500 atoms at room temperature under atmospheric pressure for 25,000 timesteps, or 25ps. The radial cutoff distance was 5.5 Å. All of the data was able to fit into the physical RAM of each system, resulting in no swapping. However, the simulation code used tabulates the potentials and forces rather than recalculating them at each time step, making the performance depend heavily on memory performance in addition to floating point arithmetic.

All binaries were compiled with optimizations for the platform on which the benchmark was being run, including any special SIMD instruction sets that the compiler could generate on its own. There are differences in the optimizations performed by the compilers, but I've tried to use each compiler's most sensible set of optimization options.

Finally, I've started including shared memory benchmarks. The SMP algorithm in the benchmark code is not highly optimized, especially in the benchmark simulation I use.

Comparison by Processor & Architecture

Benchmarks for SPARC systems
Model Processor Clock Cache RAM RAM Speed Sim. Time Compiler
Sun Ultra 10 UltraSPARC IIi 360MHz 2048KB 512MB EDO 264 MB/s 5829s Sun f95 8.2
Sun Enterprise 4500 UltraSPARC II 400MHz 4096KB 2048MB FPM 176 MB/s 5639s g77 3.4.5
Sun Netra T1 UltraSPARC IIi 440MHz 2048KB 1024MB ? 5686s Sun f95 8.5
Sun Ultra 60 UltraSPARC II 360MHz 4096KB 1024MB EDO 264 MB/s 5561s Sun f95 8.5
Sun Ultra 60 UltraSPARC II 450MHz 4096KB 2048MB EDO 264 MB/s 4974s Sun f95 8.4
Sun Blade 100 UltraSPARC IIe 500MHz 256KB 512MB PC-133 1.066 GB/s 8634s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Fire v100 UltraSPARC IIi 548MHz 512KB 2048MB PC-133 1.066 GB/s 5640s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Blade 150 UltraSPARC IIi 550MHz 512KB 512MB PC-133 1.066 GB/s 5249s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Blade 150 UltraSPARC IIi 650MHz 512KB 512MB PC-133 1.066 GB/s 5023s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Blade 1000 UltraSPARC III 750MHz 8192KB 3072MB PC-100 800 MB/s 2520s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Blade 1000 UltraSPARC III Cu 900MHz 8192KB 3072MB PC-100 800 MB/s 2030s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Fire v210 UltraSPARC IIIi 1002MHz 1024K 2048MB DDR-266 2.1 GB/s 2053s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Blade 1500 Red UltraSPARC IIIi 1062MHz 1024K 1024MB DDR-266 2.1 GB/s 1862s Sun f95 8.4
Sun Fire v240 UltraSPARC IIIi 1503MHz 1024K 2048MB DDR-266 2.1 GB/s 1558s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Blade 1500 Silver UltraSPARC IIIi 1503MHz 1024K 2048MB DDR-266 2.1 GB/s 1501s Sun f95 8.4
Sun Blade 2500 Silver UltraSPARC IIIi 1600MHz 1024K 12288MB DDR-266 2.1 GB/s 1428s Sun f95 8.4
Benchmarks for x86 systems
Model Processor Clock Cache RAM RAM Speed Sim. Time Notes
Dell Inspiron 8100 Pentium III M 1129MHz 512KB 256MB PC-133 1.1 GB/s 3680s GNU GFortran 4.3
Tyan MPX S2466 Athlon MP 1900+ 1600MHz 256KB 1024MB DDR-266 2.1 GB/s 3660s PGI pgf77 6.1-2
Dell OptiPlex GX260 Pentium 4 (Northwood) 1793MHz 512KB 1024MB DDR-333 2.1 GB/s 2170s Intel 11.1
Gateway E-4650 Pentium 4 (Northwood) 2193MHz 512KB 1024MB PC-800 3.2 GB/s 1743s Intel 11.1
Dell OptiPlex GX260 Pentium 4 (Northwood) 2391MHz 512KB 1024MB DDR-333 2.1 GB/s 1661s Intel 11.1
Dell PowerEdge 2850 Xeon 2.8 (Nocona) 2793MHz 1024KB 1024MB PC2-3200 3.2 GB/s 974s Intel 11.0
? Pentium D 3200MHz 2048KB 2048MB ? 929s PGI pgf77 10.9-0
Asus Z70va Pentium M 760 2000MHz 2048KB 1024MB PC2-4200 4.2 GB/s 731s Sun f95 8.3
Sun Fire X4100 Opteron 275 2200MHz 1024KB 4096MB DDR-400 6.4 GB/s 806s Sun f95 8.5
Sun Fire X2200 M2 Opteron 2214 2211MHz 2048KB 4096MB PC2-5300 5.3 GB/s 873s PGI pgf77 7.1-4
Microway Navion Opteron 2216 2400MHz 1024K 4096MB PC2-5300 5.3 GB/s 713s PGI pgf77 7.0-7
Sun Fire X2200 M2 Opteron 2376 2300MHz 2048K 4096MB PC2-5300 5.3 GB/s 592s GNU GFortran 4.4
Dell Core 2 Duo E6700 2668MHz 4096KB 2048MB PC2-5400 5.3 GB/s 439s GNU GFortran 4.1
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 2400MHz 32K+32K/256K/8M 49152MB DDR3-800 19.2GB/s 416s Intel 13.0.1
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 2×2400MHz 32K+32K/256K/8M 49152MB DDR3-800 19.2GB/s 306s Intel 13.0.1
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 4×2400MHz 32K+32K/256K/8M 49152MB DDR3-800 19.2GB/s 265s Intel 13.0.1
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 8×2400MHz 32K+32K/256K/8M 49152MB DDR3-800 19.2GB/s 256s Intel 13.0.1
Dell OptiPlex 760 Core 2 Duo E7500 2926MHz 3072KB 2048MB PC2-5400 5.3 GB/s 346s Intel 11.1
HP dc7800p Core 2 Duo E8400 2993MHz 6144KB 3072MB PC2-5400 5.3 GB/s 318s Intel 11.0
HP e9180f Core i7 920 2668MHz 8192KB 9GB DDR3-1333 17.0 GB/s 334s Intel 11.0
Super Micro X8DTT Xeon X5560 2800MHz 8192KB 12GB DDR3-1333 32.0 GB/s 304s Intel 11.0
HP ProLiant SL390 Xeon X5672 3200MHz 12288KB 24GB DDR3-1333 32.0 GB/s 310s Intel 12.0
HP ProLiant DL360 G7 Xeon X5672 3200MHz 12288KB 24GB DDR3-1333 32.0 GB/s 308s Intel 12.0
HP ProLiant DL360 G7 Xeon X5672 3200MHz 12288KB 24GB DDR3-1333 32.0 GB/s 292s GNU GFortran 4.4
? Xeon X5650 2668MHz 12288KB 24GB DDR3-1333 32.0 GB/s 316s Intel 11.1
? Xeon X5680 3334MHz 12288KB 20GB DDR3-1333 32.0 GB/s 313s Intel 11.1
? Xeon W5590 3334MHz 8192KB 32GB DDR3-1333 32.0 GB/s 273s Intel 11.1
? Opteron 6176 2300MHz 64K+64K/512K/2×6M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 575s PGI pgf77 10.9-0
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPB Opteron 6136 2183MHz 64K+64K/512K/2×6M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 565s PGI pgf90 11.9-0
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPB Opteron 6136 2×2183MHz 64K+64K/512K/2×6M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 477s PGI pgf90 11.9-0
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPB Opteron 6136 4×2183MHz 64K+64K/512K/2×6M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 412s PGI pgf90 11.9-0
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPB Opteron 6136 8×2183MHz 64K+64K/512K/2×6M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 476s PGI pgf90 11.9-0
Dell OptiPlex 990 Core i7-2600 3400MHz 32K+32K/256K/8M 8GB DDR3-1333 21.3 GB/s 201s GNU GFortran 4.4.6
Supermicro H8DGT Opteron 6212 2582MHz 4×64K+8×16K/4×2M/2×8M DDR3-1066 32 GB/s 353s GNU GFortran 4.4.6
HP SL230s Gen8 Xeon E5-2660 2989MHzT 32K+32K/256K/20M DDR3-1600 25.6 GB/s 270s Intel 13.0.1
HP SL230s Gen8 Xeon E5-2660 2×2194MHz? 32K+32K/256K/20M DDR3-1600 25.6 GB/s 208s Intel 13.0.1
HP SL230s Gen8 Xeon E5-2660 4×2194MHz? 32K+32K/256K/20M DDR3-1600 25.6 GB/s 171s Intel 13.0.1
HP SL230s Gen8 Xeon E5-2660 8×2194MHz? 32K+32K/256K/20M DDR3-1600 25.6 GB/s 171s Intel 13.0.1
HP SL230s Gen8 Xeon E5-2660 16×2194MHz? 32K+32K/256K/20M DDR3-1600 51.2 GB/s 164s Intel 13.0.1
Appro gB512X Xeon E5-2670 2600MHz 32K+32K/256K/20M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 292s Intel 12.1.0
Appro gB512X Xeon E5-2670 4×2600MHz 32K+32K/256K/20M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 175s Intel 12.1.0
Appro gB512X Xeon E5-2670 8×2600MHz 32K+32K/256K/20M 64GB DDR3-1333 42.7 GB/s 164s Intel 12.1.0
Dell PowerEdge C8220X Xeon Phi SE10P 8×1095MHz 32K+32K/512K 8GB GDDR5 352 GB/s 1802s Intel 13.0.1.117
Dell PowerEdge C8220X Xeon Phi SE10P 16×1095MHz 32K+32K/512K 8GB GDDR5 352 GB/s 1589s Intel 13.0.1.117
Dell PowerEdge C8220X Xeon Phi SE10P 32×1095MHz 32K+32K/512K 8GB GDDR5 352 GB/s 1479s Intel 13.0.1.117
    2194MHz 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 607s Intel 13.0.1.117
    2×2194MHz 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 344s Intel 13.0.1.117
    4×2194MHz 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 245s Intel 13.0.1.117
    8×2194MHz 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 215s Intel 13.0.1.117
    12×2194MHz 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 200s Intel 13.0.1.117
    14×2194MHz 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 201s Intel 13.0.1.117
    2681MHzT 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 358s Intel 13.0.1.117
    2×2681MHzT 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 221s Intel 13.0.1.117
    4×2493MHzT 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 174s Intel 13.0.1.117
    8×2493MHzT 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 160s Intel 13.0.1.117
    12×2493MHzT 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 165s Intel 13.0.1.117
    14×2493MHzT 32K+32K/256K/35M DDR4-2133 51 GB/s 152s Intel 13.0.1.117
Benchmarks for MIPS systems
Model Processor Clock Cache RAM RAM Speed Sim. Time Notes
SGI O2 MIPS R5000 180MHz 512KB 192MB - 25299s MIPSpro F77 7.30
SGI O2 MIPS R10000 195MHz 1024KB 192MB - 14064s MIPSpro F77 7.30
SGI O2 MIPS R12000 270MHz 1024KB 384MB - 12444s MIPSpro F77 7.30
SGI Indigo2 MIPS R10000 195MHz 1024KB 128MB - 8438s MIPSpro F77 7.30
SGI Octane MIPS R10000 225MHz 1024KB 384MB - 5744s MIPSpro F77 7.30
SGI Fuel MIPS R14000 500MHz 2048KB 2048MB - 2507s MIPSpro F77 7.30
SGI Fuel MIPS R14000 600MHz 4096KB 1024MB - 1787s MIPSpro F77 7.30
Benchmarks for POWER/PowerPC systems
Model Processor Clock Cache RAM RAM Speed Sim. Time Notes
IBM RS/6000 43p 150 PowerPC 604e 375MHz 32K+32K/1024KB 512MB PC-100 800 MB/s 10889s XL Fortran 13.1
Apple Power Mac G4 PowerPC 7450 733MHz 256KB 1024MB PC-100 800 MB/s 7291s GNU GFortran 4.4
IBM Blue Gene/P PowerPC 450 850MHz 32K+32K/2K/8MB 2048MB DDR2-850 13.6 GB/s 3030s IBM XL Fortran 11.1
IBM Blue Gene/P PowerPC 450 4×850MHz 32K+32K/2K/8MB 2048MB DDR2-850 13.6 GB/s 1720s IBM XL Fortran 11.1
Apple Power Mac G4 PowerPC 7450 933MHz 2048KB 1536MB PC-100 800 MB/s 4533s GNU GFortran 4.4
Apple Power Mac G5 PowerPC 970 1600MHz 512KB 1024MB PC2-3200 3.2 GB/s 2317s GNU GFortran 4.4
IBM Power 550 Express POWER6 4204MHz 64K+64K/8MB/32MB 15479MB DDR2-667 10.7 GB/s 646s IBM XL Fortran 11.1
IBM Power 550 Express POWER6 4×4204MHz 64K+64K/8MB/32MB 15479MB DDR2-667 10.7 GB/s 414s IBM XL Fortran 11.1
Benchmarks for PA-RISC systems
Model Processor Clock Cache RAM RAM Speed Sim. Time Compiler
HP C8000 PA-8800 1000MHz 32768K 4096MB DDR-266 2.1 GB/s 801s HP F90 3.1
Benchmarks for ARM systems
Model Processor Clock Cache RAM RAM Speed Sim. Time Compiler
Raspberry Pi model B ARM1176JZF-S 700MHz 32K+32K 512MB mDDR2 133 MB/s 16459s GNU GFortran 4.6

Numbers not highlighted in green were just pulled from some spec sheet and do not mean a lot. Those numbers appearing in green cells reflect the memory bandwidth available to the benchmark application given its placement across the node's memory topology.

TThe given clock speed represents the frequency at which the simulation ran, not the rated clock for the CPU. This happens as a result of Intel Turbo Boost Technology or AMD Turbo Core.

?The given value is probably not correct due to the CPU clocking up as a result of Intel Turbo Boost or AMD Turbo Core.

Comparison by Compiler

Below are some benchmarks from the same code on the same platform but compiled with different compilers and different compile options.

Intel Core 2 Duo E8400, 3GB RAM
Compiler Sim. Time Flags
Intel 11.0 318s -ipo -O3 -no-prec-div -static -xP -ftz -fp-model precise
Sun f95 8.3 374s -xarch=ssse3 -xcache=32/64/8 -xchip=core2
-xtypemap=real:64,double:64 -xlibmil -nofstore -xO5 -w3
GNU GFortran 4.3 406s -O3 -mtune=native -march=native -fdefault-real-8
AMD Opteron 2216, 4GB RAM
Compiler Sim. Time Flags
GNU GFortran 4.1 773s -O
Sun f95 8.3 727s -xarch=sse3a -xcache=64/64/2:1024/64/16 -xchip=k8f
-xtypemap=real:64,double:64 -xlibmil -nofstore -xO5 -w3
PGI pgf77 7.0-7 713s -Mr8 -r8 -Kieee -tp amd64e -O2
-Munroll=c:1 -Mnoframe -Mlre -Mvect=sse -Mscalarsse -Mcache_align -Mflushz
PGI pgf77 7.0-7 689s -Mr8 -r8 -Kieee -tp amd64e -O2
-Munroll=c:1 -Mnoframe -Mlre -Mvect=sse -Mscalarsse -Mcache_align -Mflushz
-Mipa=align,arg,const,f90ptr,shape,libc,globals,localarg,ptr,pure

Disk Performance

More recently I have been using bonnie++ to collect disk performance data on a variety of systems, buses, disks, and RAID configuraions.

Disk Performance
Model Bus Bus Model Rated Bus Speed Disk(s) Disk Config Rated Disk Speed Sequential Block Output (Write) Sequential Block Input (Read)
Gateway E-4650
P4@2.2GHz/1G RDR800
SCSI Ultra2 Dell PERC2 40 MB/s 3 × Seagate ST373307LC 10k RAID5 320 MB/s 3206 KB/s 37025 KB/s
Sun Ultra 60
2×450MHz/2G EDO
SCSI Ultra2 Onboard 40 MB/s 2 × Seagate ST373307LC 10k ZFS Mirror 320 MB/s 17077 KB/s 37154 KB/s
Sun Ultra 60
2×450MHz/2G EDO
SCSI Ultra Wide Symbios 53C875 40 MB/s 6 × Seagate ST33670xLC 10k RAIDZ2 160 MB/s 5696 KB/s 14167 KB/s
Sun Ultra 60
2×450MHz/2G EDO
SCSI Ultra Wide Symbios 53C875 40 MB/s 1 × Seagate ST33670xLC 10k ZFS 160 MB/s 31419 KB/s 34420 KB/s
Sun Blade 2000
1×900MHz/1G SDR
1Gb/s Fiber Channel QLogic QLA2200 100 MB/s 8 × Fujitsu MAN3735FC 10k StorEdge T3+ RAID5/ZFS 100 MB/s 47157 KB/s 60170 KB/s
Power Mac G4 Quicksilver
933MHz/1.5G PC100
ATA66 Onboard 67 MB/s 1 × IBM IC35L060AVVA07-0 7200 HFS+ 100 MB/s 38963 KB/s 40964 KB/s
Power Mac G4 Quicksilver
933MHz/1.5G PC100
SCSI Ultra160 Adaptec 29160N 160 MB/s 2 × Seagate ST336754LW 15k HFS+ Software RAID0 320 MB/s 69275 KB/s 109247 KB/s
Sun Blade 1500
1.502GHz/4G DDR333
SCSI Ultra320 LSI20320
33MHz/64bit PCI
320 MB/s 1 × HP Seagate ST373207LW 10K ZFS 320 MB/s 67520 KB/s 77190 KB/s
Sun Blade 1500
1.502GHz/4G DDR333
SCSI Ultra320 LSI20320
33MHz/64bit PCI
320 MB/s 1 × Seagate ST336754LW 15K ZFS 320 MB/s 74854 KB/s 89223 KB/s
Sun Blade 2500
2×1.6GHz/8G DDR266
SCSI Ultra320 LSI 53C1030
66MHz/64bit PCI
320 MB/s 2 × Maxtor Atlas 15K ZFS Mirror 320 MB/s 59502 KB/s 97357 KB/s
Sun Fire X4100
4×2.2GHz/4G DDR400
SAS LSI SAS1064E
133MHz/64bit PCI-X
300 MB/s 1 × Seagate ST973401SS 10k ZFS 300 MB/s 55531 KB/s 59291 KB/s
Sun Fire X4100
4×2.2GHz/8G DDR400
SAS LSI SAS1064E
133MHz/64bit PCI-X
300 MB/s 2 × Seagate ST973401SS 10k Hardware RAID1
Linux LVM
300 MB/s 45628 KB/s 46651 KB/s
Sun Fire X4100
4×2.2GHz/8G DDR400
SCSI Ultra160 Adaptec 21960
33MHz/64bit PCI
160 MB/s 3 × Seagate ST336704LC 10k
3 × Seagate ST336706LC 10k
Linux MD RAID5
Linux LVM
160 MB/s 59109 KB/s 109219 KB/s
HP C8000
2×1.0GHz/4G DDR266
SCSI Ultra320 LSI 53C1030
66MHz/64bit PCI-X
320 MB/s 1 × Fujitsu MAT3147NP 10k VxFS 320 MB/s 41820 KB/s 82669 KB/s